Moving House During Coronavirus—What You Need To Know?

We’re living in uncertain and unpreceded times.

The impact of the C-19 Coronavirus crisis is ricocheting around the globe. Each news cycle brings new information and developments. At the moment, an economic slowdown and job losses look inevitable. However, the housing market is yet to experience the full force of these factors.

Sure, there’s no denying there’s a new level of hesitation in the housing market. And people who are at the beginning of the selling or buying process are most likely to put their plans on hold. At least for the time being.

In reality, some homebuyers and sellers can’t afford to wait. For instance, maybe you’ve found your dream home, or you want to sell your house quickly to move abroad, or you’ve already completed on a property, and it’s too late to default.

Whatever your situation, if you want to go ahead with your transaction, it’s crucial you understand the risks in an ever-changing environment.

What you need to consider if you want to buy or sell your house during COVID-19
How you proceed with your home purchase depends very much on how far along you are in the process. If you’re in the middle, you’re more likely to want to speed things up and exchange as quickly as possible. For example, if you’ve already accepted an offer, or you’ve set a completion date.

To help you navigate these choppy waters, here are five things to consider when moving house during COVID-19.

#1 Limited or no viewings in person

Social isolation means property viewings done in person are going to dwindle or become totally non-existent. But this doesn’t mean you can’t see inside in a property. Thanks to technology, many estate agents offer virtual property tours. And, even before COVID-19 hit our shores, virtual property tours were growing in popularity as not everyone has the time to visit a location in person. For instance, if they live abroad or in another city.

According to a study by the American National Association of Realtors, 45% of buyers reported finding virtual tours useful when house hunting. It’s not surprising as virtual tours offer consumers a unique opportunity to experience a property without stepping foot in it.

#2 Securing a mortgage

Thanks to technological innovations in the finance sector, the process of applying for and securing a mortgage has become simpler. As a result of digitalization like AI and automation, you can now complete a mortgage application online via your smartphone.

What this means in practice is mortgage lenders can make decisions on mortgage applications far faster due to more efficient access to applicants’ financial information.

#3 Conveyancing delays

The more steps or people involved in your house buying process increases the risk of hold-ups. Of course, this is true of any house buying experience, but even more so in the current climate.

Potential delays include the availability of a solicitor to complete deals, registration lags at and difficulties in getting key documents witnessed due to self-isolation as e-signatures are not accepted.

To avoid delays prioritize getting local authority searches completed as quickly as possible.

#4 Risk of transactions not completing on time

It’s important to remember if you’ve already exchanged contracts but not yet completed, you are legally bound to continue. If you or the other party default at this point, you risk incurring financial penalties for breach of contract and even legal action.

One option is to add a force majeure clause into the contract. This will allow you to agree to a postponement of the completion date. But it’s a complex process and involves all parties in the chain to decide together.

#5 Relying on others

Great, you’ve managed to exchange and complete successfully. Before you crack open the champagne to celebrate, remember you still need to control the logistics of physically moving.

Removal companies may struggle to move people as a result of the virus, creating delays along the chain. Rather than moving your belongings, one option is you just take essentials and place the rest of your stuff in storage. This way, everyone can still move but without relying on anyone else.

Final thoughts

Try to stay calm. Talk to your estate agent and find out what is happening and what support they can offer. Communicate with your chain. By working together, you have a better chance of agreeing on a way forward or managing delays so that everyone can move quickly and safely.

 

26th March 2020 / by / in
Here are the Surprising Ways that Self Storage Could Help You to Sell Your House

Selling property can be a long and laborious process – and it’s not one that should ever be taken lightly either. Did you know that selling property has been names as one of – if not the – most stressful part of modern life today? Those that don’t know what they’re talking about might say we don’t have enough to worry about, but those in the know, know exactly how hard it can be selling a house.

However, there are always ways of helping to sell your property, and more quickly at that. One of the lesser-known of these is the ways in which self-storage can help to make a property more appealing to potential buyers.

Today, we’re going to be revealing the surprising ways in which self-storage can help you to sell the property.

Properly Staging a Property

Before showing you any we buy any house reviews and facts, professionals will tell you one thing: that clutter can prevent you from selling your house quickly, and for its worthy value.

That might sound extreme, but it’s true in a quite literal capacity. Clutter is well known as being one of the most off-putting things for a potential buyer, for more reasons that one.

For starters, it makes a room look messy. The clutter itself might not actually be in the middle of the floor, but if it’s cluttering up shelves, it is piled up in the corner of a room or is even just in a box, potential buyers and their eagle eyes will be the first to notice.

Secondly, a messy – or cluttered – room automatically looks smaller. Ask any estate agent and they’ll tell you that the most sellable properties boast space, even if they don’t technically have the square footage. A well cleared and decluttered room will optimize the space available, and will automatically give the illusion of the room being bigger.

“But what does this have to do with self-storage?” you might be wondering. Well, as you’re likely aware, not all of us are blessed with a lot of storage space within our homes. This actually tends to be a lot of the reason why smaller properties become cluttered. If you have a self-storage unit, then you can move all of the things and furnishings which are cluttering your property and making it look smaller into it throughout the entire viewing process. Problem solved!

Keeping the Property Appearing and Smelling Clean

We know that cleaning the house isn’t everyone’s idea of a good time (is it anyone’s?), and with a family, in tow, it can sometimes feel like keeping the house tidy is nigh on an impossible task. The dog rubs its shedding fur all over the sofa, the kids run through the house with dirty shoes, and you’re sat wondering how you’re ever going to sell the clean and perfect home that buyers so desire.

Well, not only does putting your clutter in a self-storage space make the place look better and tidier (and cleaner), but it’s also going to make it smell better too.

If you have pets and a family as we mentioned, you’ll know all too well how much stuff they accumulate. Old football trainers and pet beds, even when out of the way, can cause a slightly unpleasant odor in the home – and you can bet that viewers will notice it straight away. Eliminate the possibility of it altogether, by putting your clutter – particularly the stuff that could be at risk of getting a bit smelly – into a self-storage unit, away from home.

You Make the Most of Every Room

If you’ve got a spare bedroom or a dining room that only gets used on special occasions such as Christmas, then you’ll know all too well that these rooms automatically become storage spaces.

Now, this is fine if no one is looking in them – but you can bet that when people are viewing the property, they’ll want to look in every room, and we mean every room. They aren’t really going to get the full idea of how a room can be if it’s full of pointless items, are they? Again, self-storage is the perfect solution!

Garden Junk is a No

Last of all, but by no means least, garden junk is a huge no when selling property.

First impressions count, and if your front garden is full of old gardening debris, then buyers aren’t going to assume nice about the inside of the house. This is referred to as “curb appeal”.

Of course, you can’t put all of your gardening things into the house, and if you don’t have a shed, this leaves you with no other options…except for self-storage!

Self-storage, saving the property market. Who’d have thought it?

12th March 2020 / by / in
The Best Time of Year to Move – Debunked

Moving to a new house is never an easy feat. There are so many variables to consider and every single person’s situation is different, however, you will find common themes across all the seasons when it comes to deciding what time of year to move to a new house.

We have created a guide of all the pros and cons for each season when it comes to moving so you can form a well-rounded opinion for your next move.

Winter

Why you should move in Winter

  • Save Money – Far fewer people are moving to a new house during the winter months due to the slower market and cold weather. This means rates are cheaper and you can save money across the board, even when it comes to buying your house.

 

  • Flexibility – With most removal companies having a less hectic schedule during winter you should be able to take advantage of this when it comes to booking in your own removal, especially if you haven’t got a confirmed completion date.

 

  • Time & Care – If most removal companies are working on fewer jobs this time of year, it should also help you with any additional requests, such as packing or moving large furniture. Your local removal company in Kent will be more than happy to do this anyway, regardless of the time of year, but it does help when it’s quieter.

 

Why you should not move in Winter:

  • Poor Weather – Moving in bad weather is no fun for anyone, whether that be the removal company or the homeowner. Although cold, most winters in the UK are mild but there is also a fairly high chance that you could be faced with ice, fog, and even snow, so you need to be prepared.

 

  • Christmas – The Christmas period itself needs to be organized and thought of, so it may not be wise to plan your move around this. Especially if you are purchasing a number of presents or making other plans, the additional stress can be too much for some people.

Spring

Why you should move in Spring:

 

  • Reasonable Weather – Not too cold and not too hot, spring is a happy medium for many house movers. The sun is usually out most days, although it can sometimes be a little chilly, it is not unbearable. This also makes driving and transportation a lot safer.

 

  • Term Time

 

Most kids are in school during the spring, excluding the Easter holidays, making spring an ideal choice for families. Moving with kids can be difficult, particularly if they are younger, so you can make things easier by moving whilst they are in school during the day. This gives you a lot more time to sort everything out yourself.

 

Why you should not move in Spring:

 

  • Busier Times – It’s commonly thought that summer is the most popular time to move but spring definitely comes up in the ranks too. The property market is quite busy and this means you will be up against a lot more buyers when it comes to purchasing a proper and hiring a removal company.

Happy couple opening boxes in the living room

Summer

Why you should move in Summer:

 

  • No Weather Issues – There is always an unlikely chance that extreme weather conditions could occur, however, summer is the best guarantor of this not happening.

 

Why you should not move in Summer:

 

  • Popular – Summer is commonly thought of as the most popular and common time to move to a new house so things can be quite hectic during this season. The days are longer and people tend to be happier and better equipped.

 

  • Summer Holidays – Moving with kids can be difficult. On the other hand, if they are off school and have to move with you, it can sometimes be easier if you don’t have to worry about taking them to and from school.

Autumn

 

Why you should move in Autumn:

 

  • Mild Weather – As summer ends you will find the weather starts to cool down slightly and daylight hours are usually still long until November, making autumn a good alternative if summer is too expensive.

 

Why you should not move in Autumn:

 

  • Start of New School Year – It can be a pain to move in autumn if you have children, as most terms will start in September. Especially if you plan to move your children to a new school, it could be hard for them to adjust if they are mid-way through.

 

Our Verdict

 

At the end of the day, you need to make the decision that is best for you. We would recommend moving in the quieter months and where weather is a lot less harsh, but this also has an effect on the number of properties being bought and sold, so it entirely depends on your own situation.

As long as you plan well and get organized in advanced you should have a successful move, no matter what time of year it is!

22nd January 2020 / by / in
Our Top Tips & Tricks For Moving Home In 2020

The new year has finally arrived! With this change of year, many decide its time to make a change to their everyday life. Whether it be a new year’s resolution or looking into moving home there is no doubt that you’ve thought about it.  Exploring the possibilities of moving home can be a very exciting time but it’s important that you take your time to ensure all the planning has been completed comprehensively. Once you have taken the time to find the perfect new home you now need to dive into the depths of organizing the move itself. The day of the move doesn’t have to be a stressful experience, we have put together some of the best tips & tricks to help ensure that your home move runs perfectly. 

 Find a Trustworthy Removal Company 

Removal company

 Let’s start with the basics, the heart of every successful removal is the company in which you put your trust in. A removal company is in charge of a lot more than just taking your possessions from A to B. You’re removal company will deal with the handling and packing of your beloved possessions so it’s extremely important that you chose a company that you can trust. One of the best ways to find a removal company that you can put your trust in is by exploring the options available to you in your local area. If you looking for a removal company in Cheltenham make sure you also speak to friends or family who has recently moved to your local area and research the companies that they used. 

 

Plan ahead to ensure everything runs smoothly 

 A successful home move is always down to the little things. Planning a home move can be very complicated but by taking the time to start this planning well in advance ensures you have plenty of time to get everything sorted. We recommend that you give yourself 6 months of planning time before the day of the move. This will ensure that you have adequate time to do research into the removal companies you chose. With 6 weeks for planning, you have total peace of mind that you can get everything organized without feeling rushed by the ever-approaching move date. Having enough time to plan your home move is essential for reducing stress on the day of the move, therefore keeping you and the family happy. If you rush this every so important planning stage you may find that one aspect of your home move is not coordinated correctly leading to a move day disaster. 

 

Pack your possessions in advance 

 Packing your possessions is a crucial part of the preparation stage and this cannot be left to the very last minute. 2 weeks before the day of the move make sure you communicate with your removal company to ensure they provide packing material. If this is not the case make sure that you order this material in well in advance. When you’re packing material arrives start to pack away all of the items that you may not necessarily need to hand for everyday life. Whilst you are packing up your items make sure that you label the boxes as going along. This will ensure that when you arrive at your new home you can ask your trusted removal company to help place your boxes into the correct rooms, this will help make unpacking one step quicker. Leave your overnight essentials in a separate bag, even if you don’t get around to unpacking that same day you have your most important possessions to hand. 

18th January 2020 / by / in
How to Find The Perfect Storage Solution For You!

Finding a reliable storage solution is no simple task, there is a wide range of options out there making it very complicated to decide which option is best for you.  Once when you decide on the perfect storage solution you must decide which company you’re going to put your trust in. Luckily this is where we are here to help, we aim to equip you required knowledge to find the best company for your every need. 

What Is self-storage? 

Suitable for both domestic and commercial needs, self-storage offers a reliable solution allowing you to still have full access to all of the possessions you choose to keep within the storage. This storage solution commonly consists of renting a large steel storage container where you can store your possessions. These steel containers can dramatically vary on size and can be found as large as 20ft in length. Most self-storage sites offer 24 access to your possessions meaning you can get hold of all your possessions kept in storage at a time of the day which is ideal for you. This ensures that you never left without your possessions when you need them most. 

What Is Residential Storage? 

Whether your in-between house moves or you are simply looking to free up some of the clutter found within your home, the residential storage solution is the perfect solution for you. Residential storage is most commonly a secure indoor facility where your items can be kept dry and safe at all times. No matter if you looking to store an old mattress or just some sportswear you can have the total peace of mind that your possessions will come out of storage in the same condition as you left them in. If your looking for a cost-effective storage solution for your possessions a residential storage solution will most likely be the best option for you.  

How To Decide On A Storage Company? 

Deciding which solution is perfect for you is only half the problem, now its time to decide which company to use. The fact is that there are hundreds of companies up and down the country that offer a reliable storage solution making it difficult to chose one over the other. In this section, we are going to provide you with some of the main questions you may want to ask yourself before choosing a company. 

What Is The Companies Reputation? 

The reputation of a company is one of the most important factors that you should look into prior to giving them a call. Take your time and do this research properly as you don’t want any unexpected surprises when arriving to pick up your possessions after the time spent in storage. A great resource for looking into a company’s reputation is by looking them up on google and taking a look at the previous reviews left. This will most likely be an unfiltered view of what previous customers experienced when inquiring with the company. Don’t just read the good, take a read of some of the negative reviews as well to help you decide if the companies right for you. 

Is The Company Local To Your Home? 

You wouldn’t choose to sign up for a gym located on the other side of the city so why would it be any different when finding a storage company? For example, if you’re looking for Storage in Newcastle make sure you actually find a business with facilities within Newcastle, if you chose a storage company located in a nearby city it may become a nuisance getting hold of your possessions.  A companies locality and reputation are the two most important factors you should look into prior to giving them a call.

19th December 2019 / by / in , ,
Top 5 Questions to Ask When Choosing a Self Storage Facility

Whether you’re moving home, moving abroad or moving forward with your new business, self-storage can provide a convenient, cost-effective storage solution that could make your life a great deal easier.

But before you jump at the first reasonably priced storage facility you come across, it’s crucial that you know exactly what you’re signing up for.

In this article, we list the five most important questions you need to ask any storage facility before you sign on that dotted line. While everybody’s storage needs are different, these essential questions will help you understand whether a company’s storage services are fully aligned with your storage needs.

 

1.    What type of self-storage do you offer at your facility?

Indoor vs Outdoor storage

Self-storage facilities will generally offer either indoor or outdoor storage, while some larger facilities may even offer both.

With indoor self-storage, all storage units are housed under one roof and accessed via the main entrance of the facility. This helps protect stored items from the elements and keeps storage unit temperature consistent throughout the year. However, accessibility is limited with indoor self-storage as you cannot simply drive straight up to your unit.

Outdoor self-storage has the advantage of allowing customers to drive right up to the door of their storage unit. There’s no need to lug your storage items through the corridors of an indoor storage facility to the door of your unit. While accessibility is definitely a big benefit with outdoor storage, the weather can be an issue. Your storage items may be more susceptible to outdoor elements and, if the storage units are not fully secured and waterproof, it can lead to damage from water and pests.

Climate controlled vs non-climate controlled

Most indoor storage facilities will have some form of climate control, either naturally because the facility is enclosed or artificially via an air conditioning unit. While some outdoor storage facilities may offer climate controlled units, it is not the industry norm. Non-climate controlled storage facilities are generally cheaper because their maintenance costs are cheaper.

Whether or not you should opt for a climate-controlled unit will depend on what you want to store and how long you plan on storing it.

If you are storing household furniture for a couple of months as you move house, climate control will probably not be necessary. On the other hand, if you are storing wooden antiques or important paperwork for a number of years, you’ll probably want humidity and temperature control to prevent the wood from warping or to protect the documents from the mold.

Other types of self-storage:

  • Warehouse storage – storage facilities consisting of large, open buildings where all customers’ storage items are kept in one expansive room. Warehouse storage can be cheaper than other types of self-storage but it comes with an increased risk of fire damage as fires spread quickly in open-plan buildings (more of this later).
  • Storage containers – storage facilities that allow customers to rent container storage units (typically shipping containers) to store their belongings in. While container self-storage is generally outdoors and doesn’t offer climate control, they allow easy access for cars and vans.
  • Lock-up storage – garage-style storage facilities where customers are assigned an outdoor ‘lock-up’ unit. While lock-up facilities offer one of the cheapest self-storage options, they generally don’t offer the level of security provided by a warehouse or container self-storage facility. In most cases, the garage padlock is the only security measure in place.

2. What security measures do you have in place at your facility?

The safety of customer storage items should be the number one priority of any Storage Facility in London.

While no two storage facilities are the same, there are some fundamental security measures that a storage facility needs to have in place before you seriously consider them:

 

  • 24-hour CCTV surveillance
  • Security alarms
  • Fire alarms
  • Heavy-duty padlocks
  • On-site personnel
  • Fully trained and vetted staff
  • Secure code access system

 

3. How accessible would my storage items be?

Renting a storage space from a professional, high-security storage facility is one thing, gaining access to and from your storage unit is another.

It’s hard to beat outdoor storage facilities when it comes to accessibility. This type of facility generally allows 24-hour access, where customers use their unique code to gain access through the security gates.

Indoor storage facilities tend to be less accessible. Most of these facilities will only allow access during office hours when the building is open. While this generally includes weekends and evenings, it is still not the round the clock access that outdoor facilities offer.

As discussed above, warehouse facilities and other forms of indoor storage will require extra effort moving items from your vehicle to the door of the storage building and then to your unit or vice versa.

 

4. Are your storage facilities water and fireproof

Fire damage protection

In the past year alone, there have been two major storage facility fires: the first was in a Shurgard depot in Croydon at the start of the year, while the other was at a Storing.com facility in Bedford in November. Hundreds of their self-storage customers watched their precious belongings go up in smoke.

Both of these buildings were open-plan, warehouse-style storage facilities.

While there is no way to remove the risk of fire completely, outdoor and containerized storage units are generally safer from fire damage. This is because fire spreads much faster in open-plan buildings where air circulation is good and there are no walls to slow them down.

Individual rooms and steel containers slow fires down and give emergency services the precious time they need to get fires under control.

While lost storage facilities have efficient fire alarms (with some even having sprinkler systems), outdoor container storage facilities offer your storage items greater protection from fire.

Water damage protection

Water damage is less of an issue with indoor storage facilities but high humidity can still damage delicate items and encourage mold and mildew. In the UK, we luckily don’t have the extremes in temperature and humidity that warmer climes do but climate-controlled units can still offer complete protection.

It’s crucial that any outdoor self-storage facilities ensure their units are completely protected from the elements. Even a small amount of water leaking into a storage unit can lead to mold growth and prove disastrous.

Ask your prospective storage facility if they can guarantee that their storage units are waterproof and, if not, how can you make sure your belongings are covered in worst-case scenarios…

5. Do you offer self-storage insurance?

Sometimes, despite all of the safety precautions a storage facility might take, fires, theft and extreme weather can still damage stored items.

While there is no way to truly replace sentimental belongings or unique items, financial compensation can offer some level of consolation.

Traditional contents insurance will generally not cover your storage items so you will need to take out special self-storage insurance to cover your stored items against theft or damage.

Some storage facilities will offer to insure your goods as an additional storage service but, as with choosing a storage facility in the first place, it’s always worth shopping around to get the best deal.

Flexible Storage

At Flexible Storage, we offer adaptable self-storage insurance policies as well as secure document and self-storage to individuals and businesses alike. Supplying storage services across London, Kent, Essex and the rest of Home Counties, our storage containers are both water and fireproof. Get in touch with us today to receive a free insurance quote or to learn more about our self-storage services.

1st December 2019 / by / in ,
You Must Read These Advantages of Storage Buildings for Logistic Businesses

When it comes to logistic, businesses know that the role of storage buildings are important and crucial. It is an integral part of supply chain management. Apparently, it is not just a storage building where the stock of the business is kept for shipping and delivery, storage buildings reduce costs for both consumers and suppliers. Storage buildings are a must for small logistics businesses and a necessary expense needed for the growth of the business. It boosts the productivity of your business and thus eventually results in an increase in profit. Let us see some significant advantages that you avail from Mini storage buildings if you are foreseeing your future in the logistics business.

Better Inventory Management

A business report reveals that around 8% of small businesses avoid tracking of inventory in the business and you will be surprised to know that 24% of small businesses do not have inventory at all. This results in delays in shipments, delay in the processing of customer orders and so give a poor impression of your business services. This also helps in identifying the need for further stock and businesses will make timely arrangements for alternatives.

Provides a Central Location to Your Business

Tracking business activity is easy if you have a storage building at a central place of a city or town. Managing your inventory is also facile. Investment in Mini storage buildings is will not only give you a wide storage space but also facilitate in shipment and distributing of products effectively and efficiently. Having a convenient location helps the businesses to better treat their customers and thereby raise the credibility in the market.

Better Packaging and Processing

Many of the storage building facilitates with equipment and supplies that businesses need to store goods, move them, package and processing of orders from customers. This provides the business houses to gather all the things at one place. So, logistic businesses can save a lot of time and money which they can invest in further expansion of their business. This helps in maintaining flexibility as well.

Superior Customer Service

The level of customer service decides the goodwill of your business among the clients and customers. It is very important these days where the level of competition is continuously increasing, and customers are open to a lot of choices in the market. It is very important for businesses to keep their customers satisfied and happy if they want to retain them in the business.

Better Risk Management

Keeping goods in a storage building, logistics businesses make wise decisions because they not only provide a spacious place to store the goods but also helps in managing the risk of perishing goods, if they deal with such goods and products. This also helps in protecting from price fluctuations. Although the level of risk depends on the nature of the business one can’t deny that every business has some or other kind of risk. Warehouses and mini storage buildings with climate-controlled storage deal with it better.

Ensure Price Stability

There are many products whose demand fluctuates with the passage of time. This helps the businesses to keep the price stability in their business because it would be then difficult to build up a strong customer base. Many times, due to government policies, climatic conditions, etc. the prices of some commodities fluctuate a lot. At that time, goods stored at an earlier point of time helps in ensuring price stability and thereby retain your customer.

Conclusion

Logistic businesses are all about transport, packaging, and providing such services. It is quite helpful for such businesses to hire or buy storage buildings in order to avail of the above-mentioned benefits of it. Warehousing is a very essential part of any business and it helps positively in the growth of the business. Although many of the businesses treat it as an expense there are a lot of benefits as you have seen above. I hope it helps!

29th November 2019 / by / in ,
Three Things to Consider Before Deciding Where to Move

You’re Moving Home

Moving home is a really exciting time. You could be moving to a new city for a new job, to be closer to your family or friends – or perhaps you just fancy a change. Some of us tend to move more than others, but research from Zoopla revealed that the average person moves every 23 years. It might not be quite that long for you, but it shows if we’re moving we want to be moving to the right place….

16th October 2019 / by / in ,
Thinking Outside Of The Box – Items You Should Never Put Into Storage

Whether you’re moving house or just looking to clear some space in your home, self-storage facilities are a great way to keep your belongings safe. Although self-storage is a great solution for your furniture and other household items, there are a few things that should be kept away for legal, hygiene and just plain common sense reasons.  We’ve put together our guide to things that should never be kept in your self-storage unit.

23rd September 2019 / by / in , ,
7 Tips to Make Moving Less Stressful for Your Kids

When it comes to changes, kids can be pretty sensitive to them. Everyday routine is something that kids enjoy and they prefer knowing when’s the time to eat, where can they go play, and which are the boundaries. However, when the family decides to move somewhere, kids can feel a bit confused or scared. That’s because you’re taking them out of their comfort zone and into something completely unknown….

11th September 2019 / by / in